Terminology you should know
heritability . dicer and RISC . silencing . transposons . retrovirusses . spontaneous and induced mutations . photolyase . transition and transversion . missense and nonsense mutations . eupolyploidy . facultative sexuality . monecious . diecious . hermaphroditic . proterandry . apomixis . gametophytic and sporophytic self-incompatibility
Concepts you should know, be able to explain, and remember
You can explain, which two factors are central for the generation of genetic variation
You can explain, what happens in a protein, when there is a missense mutation, what happens, when there is a nonsense mutation
You can explain, what is the evolutionary advantage of sexual propagation over asexual propagation
You can explain, what the principle of the different form of plant genders are
You can explain, why sporophytic SI is more stringent than gametophytic SI
To think about
- How many different gametes can be generated (ignoring crossing over) during meiosis for n=2, n=3, n=4, and n=5 chromosomes?
- White flower colour is a recessive trait. Can you explain why? You have a population of Viola elatior, where 16 % of individuals have white flowers. What percentage of the population is heterozygous for this trait? Remark: before you go to solve this problem, refresh your knowledge on the Hardy-Weinberg-Equation.
- Most flowers are hermaphroditic. Give two mechanisms (with a real example), how plants prevent self-fertilisation.
- What happens, if a tomato with the genotype S1S2 is pollen donor for a tomato with genotype S2S3.
- What type of plants do you find in an androdiecious species.
To read and deepen
- Genetics of flower colour and pollinator attraction in orchids. Kellenberger et al. 2019 (open access)
- Polyploidie und Pflanzenevolution (via KIT-Lizenz)