Terminology you should know
heritability . dicer and RISC . silencing . transposons . retrovirusses . spontaneous and induced mutations . photolyase . transition and transversion . missense and nonsense mutations . eupolyploidy . facultative sexuality . apomixis . speciation . synthetic theory . allopatric and sympatric speciation . hybrid depression . allopolyploidy . U-triangle . descendence . central dogma of molecular biology . epigenetics
Concepts you should know, be able to explain, and remember
You can explain, which two factors are central for the generation of genetic variation
You can explain what happens in a protein, when there is a missense mutation, what happens, when there is a nonsense mutation
You can explain 3hat is the evolutionary advantage of sexual propagation over asexual propagation
You can explain, what the term "allopatric" and "sympatric" speciation means
To think about
- How many different gametes can be generated (ignoring crossing over) during meiosis for n=2, n=3, n=4, and n=5 chromosomes?
- White flower colour is a recessive trait. Can you explain why? You have a population of Viola elatior, where 16 % of individuals have white flowers. What percentage of the population is heterozygous for this trait? Remark: before you go to solve this problem, refresh your knowledge on the Hardy-Weinberg-Equation.
- Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is a allopolyploid from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleraceae. Sketch down the chromosomes in meiosis I of a hybrid B. napus x B. rapa and a hybrid B. napus x B. oleraceae.
- Most flowers are hermaphroditic. Give two mechanisms (with a real example), how plants prevent self-fertilisation.
- Many plants attract pollinators by mimicking their sexual signals - why confers this strategy a selective advantage?
To read and deepen
- Genetics of flower colour and pollinator attraction in orchids. Kellenberger et al. 2019 (open access)
- Polyploidie und Pflanzenevolution (via KIT-Lizenz)